Guest contributor Alex Burns studies biology at Cardiff University in the UK.
You’ve heard of Car Wars – now how about Titanium vs. Ceramic?
What did ceramic say to titanium?
Move over. More and more now, ceramic composites are used in hip replacement in favor of titanium. The hip replacement is one of the most successful and widely done operations around the world. 90 percent of patients report pain-free movement, and a wider range of mobility. How is this miracle performed?
Doctors completed the first hip replacement in 1891 with the use of ivory, but they soon moved on to metals. With the invention of Teflon, the wear and tear along with the metal build-up in the bodies of the patients was reduced until modern alloys were introduced. These days, the typical metal femur head replacement consists of a titanium stem attaching to the femur and a cobalt chromium head for hardness. The head is machined to size and then polished to reduce the rubbing on the bone. Not too long ago a plastic spacer of polyethylene was put between the head and the socket to further reduce wear, but it was found the cobalt chromium head lasts longer on its own.
How long does a hip replacement last?
The average hip replacement lasts around 25 years, but with the usage of ceramics this could be lengthened even further. The main cause of a revision hip replacement is wear and tear; the heads grind down over time, causing a build-up of material which is related to loosening of the joint and a return in pain along with a loss of mobility.
Ceramic implants, however, are much smoother and harder than their cobalt chromium counterparts and so wear less. That’s one of the reasons they’re used in high performance brake pads on cars. For younger patients receiving hip replacement, this could be a massive bonus. If they got a metal implant at the age of 45, by the time they were 70 it would need revision surgery at a stage in life where their bodies are far less able to heal and deal with any complications associated with the surgery. With a ceramic head, the implant should hopefully outlast them and so rid them of the necessary operation to change it.
Continued in Part Two.