Articles in Category: Environment

The shipping industry would argue that it moves more cargo with a lower carbon footprint per ton than any of the alternatives.

Airlines, by comparison, move a fraction of the cargo (even including passengers) and yet emit comparable global CO2 emissions. Yet, while automakers and car buyers have been forced to accept the costs and burdens of substantial legislation, the manufacturing (particularly in Europe) has had to pay ever higher power costs to subsidize national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from their power industries and heavy industry has been regulated on emissions of just about everything, the shipping industry has gotten off relatively scot-free.

Escaping Regulation

Frugal as the shipping industry is in terms of CO2 emissions per mile/ton, it is still a major polluter as anyone who has witnessed a ferry boat or ocean liner firing up its boilers will testify. Not only does the industry account for some 3% of greenhouse gas emissions on current trends, it is forecast to rise to 5% by 2050, when all other targets are set to halve from 1990 levels.

Source European Commission report on Shipping

Source European Commission report on Shipping.

The problem is compounded by the fact that a ship’s bunker fuel is probably the most hazardous and polluting of fuels burned for any major industrial application anywhere, with higher levels of sulfur and other health damaging constituents. Read more

It may be strong political lobbying or maybe a perception that the industry is crucial for economic development, but the aerospace and shipping industries have certainly avoided the worst of environmental regulation over the last decade or so.

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The energy and heavy industry sectors have borne the brunt of what some would call over-regulation. But that’s all about to change. 191 Countries gathered in Montréal last week to adopt a global market-based system to tackle the rise of carbon emissions from international air travel an article in the Telegraph explains.

Offset Market

Under the new deal, airlines will be expected to offset their emissions growth after 2020 by buying “offset credits” in line with their carbon footprint, the terms of the agreement layout. The carbon costs are expected to incentivize the industry to develop lower carbon fuels and more efficient technologies, according to the newspaper. Read more

At the presidential debate Monday night, Democratic Presidential Nominee Hillary Clinton, when asked how she would create jobs by moderator Lester Holt, said, “Here’s what we can do. We can deploy a half a billion more solar panels. We can have enough clean energy to power every home. We can build a new modern electric grid. That’s a lot of jobs; that’s a lot of new economic activity.”

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It has often been said that the truth is the first casualty in the world of politics and the democratic party’s long-term commitment to battling the very real scourge of climate change is more dogma than policy these days wherein its adherents are committed to stopping what President Obama called “the rise of the oceans,” no matter what the cost and no matter how effective the tools it currently has really are — in this specific case, solar silicon photovoltaic panels. That’s just how so many business ventures lose sight of the bottom line and fail.

Solar Ahead of Wind?

It was actually rare to hear Clinton specify solar as a technology to “create jobs” as the usual dogma is to tout “wind and solar” with little specifics about how either of these generation technologies — which don’t require raw materials to be dug out of the ground as with the fossil fuels that currently provide most of the country’s electricity. That would mean a lot of former miners and drillers either selling or installing the estimable sum of half a billion solar panels and, once that install base is set, where do those “new jobs” go from there?


The growth in solar, in the last two decades, has been heavily dependent on the solar investment tax credit. Source: GTM Research.

If Clinton is really talking about jobs in production of crystalline silicon photovoltaic panels, she may be surprised to learn that the production end of solar has been a mature industry for decades now. There’s already a booming industry with plenty of skilled workers producing panels quickly and efficiently.

Booming Solar Production

According to GTM Research, nearly 209,000 Americans already work in solar today — more than double the number in 2010 — at more than 8,000 companies in every U.S. state. By 2020, that number is expected to double to more than 420,000 workers, but that’s a total of 211,000 jobs by the end of a potential first Clinton administration. That’s not that much job growth, all things considered. Modern factories are already able to churn out large volumes of panels quickly and efficiently. Read more

Sometimes firms take solid commercial decisions that have laudable environmental side effects, and sometimes firms take environmental decisions that they seek to justify as being cost neutral or occasionally even saving them a little money.

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But the miner, Anglo American Platinum, has an investment division that makes hard-nosed commercial investments that hold out not the dim and distant prospect of eventual impact but the imminent probability of strongly positive environmental benefits. The firm is helped by its positioning as a major miner of platinum group metals (PGMs) and the pivotal role those metals play in catalyst technologies.

Catalyst Demand

Catalysts, like modern day alchemists, turn waste into something of value, a pollutant into an environmentally beneficial product. In this case, environmentally damaging flare gas, produced in the processing of crude oil and from drill rigs, which is often flared or burned as a waste product can be turned, with the help of catalysts, into something of value.

Burning flare gas produces carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon black, and other pollutants such as methane, which, according the Environmental Protection Agency, as a greenhouse gas is 25 times more potent than CO2. The World Bank estimates that, globally, approximately 140 billion cubic meters (5 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas is flared annually, resulting in the emission of more than 300 million tons of CO2. Eliminating these emissions would be the equivalent to removing more than 77 million cars from the road or the combined total car fleets of Germany and the U.K., according to the firm’s statement.

Anglo American’s Future

Anglo American has been actively investing growth capital in companies that can demonstrate the commercial viability of their products or technologies since 2013. Anglo American Platinum’s Platinum Group Metals Investment Program holds investments in Hydrogenious Technologies and United Hydrogen Group, and has just added another, Greyrock Energy — whose catalyst-based system converts liquids and gasses such as flare gas, natural gas, bio-gas and similar feedstocks into clean liquid transportation fuels with hydrogen as a by-product.

The hydrogen production is seen as supporting Anglo’s efforts to help develop fuel cell technologies and fuel cell feedstock supply. For Anglo, this is seen as a solid investment in a growing technology but environmentalists extol the fuel cells’ ability to produce electrical power and produce nothing worse than clean water.

In a recent press release Anglo announced its investment in Greyrock while strongly promoting the potential environmental benefits of both the process itself and the growth of technologies that lower costs would support but, make no mistake, Anglo is making these PGM technology investments with the intention of buying into a rapidly expanding industry from which it will augment its mining revenues in the future.

She’s been described as the “green lady,” and The Guardian once called her the “woman who loves garbage.”

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Veena Sahajwalla, a native of Mumbai, is the director of the Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology at the University of New South Wales in Australia

Last weekend, Sahajwalla was on one of her many visits to India, where she addressed a high profile seminar at the Scrap Recycling Conference: Emerging Markets. There, she told delegates about her pioneering effort in making “green steel” from, guess what? End-of-life rubber tires.

Polymer Injection Technology (PIT), a technology that Sahajwalla invented, can be used to recycle tires to replace coal and coke in the making of steel. While the two-day conference saw almost 300 delegates from the scrap and steel industry confab on issues ranging from the world business of recycling to automobile recycling in India, Veena’s presentation seemed to have created the most buzz.

The Indo-Australian scientist insists that her technology could be the answer to the growing global problem of disposal of waste tires globally. The United States, for example, was the largest producer of waste tires at about 290 million a year, but now China and India are giving the U.S. a run for its money because of increasing sales of new vehicles.

Automobile tires are made from a mix of natural and synthetic rubber, and various structural reinforcing elements including metal wires and chemical additives. The PIT introduces a modification into the conventional manufacturing process for steel. The technology precisely controls the injection of granulated waste tire material in conventional electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, partially replacing non-renewable coke. Tire rubber, like coke, is a good source of hydrocarbons, which means they can be transformed in EAF steelmaking.

New South Wales University researched the replacement technology for years and, today, millions of waste tires are being transformed into high quality steel in Australia.

Recently, the same university also showcased a pilot micro-factory that safely transforms toxic e-waste into high-value metal alloys, offering a low-cost solution to what to do with the millions of phones, computers and other e-waste products plaguing India. Sahajwalla was involved in this project, too.

She told the Asian Scientist Magazine recently that a ton of mobile phones (about 6,000 handsets) contained about 130 kilograms of copper, 3.5 kg of silver, 340 grams of gold and 140 grams of palladium, worth tens of thousands of dollars. Sahajwalla explained that she used precisely controlled high-temperature reactions to produce copper and tin-based alloys from tossed out printed circuit boards (PCBs) while simultaneously destroying toxins.

All this is sweet music to the ears of Indian recycling industry. The country is the world’s second-largest mobile phone market, and the fifth-largest producer of e-waste, discarding roughly 1.9 million metric tons of such waste every year. Veena is confident that the PIT can solve India’s waste tyres problem.

India’s Recycled Metal Market

While the global recycled metal market is estimated to touch $476.2 billion by 2024, India’s scrap recycling industry is set to register an annual growth of 11.4% until the year 2020, according to a recent report by Frost & Sullivan. India’s annual scrap consumption was 20.40 mmt; it imports 6.48 mmt of scrap, and is the world’s third-largest importer.

But India’s traditional metals, ferrous and non-ferrous, recycling rate is about 20%, less than the world average. For some years now, the unorganized sector has been demanding that the Indian government accord it “industry” status and implement a metal recycling policy with a view to ensuring fast-track growth.

India has the potential to become one of largest car recycling regions, and the demand for policy was something that was even discussed at the two-day conference here. The Indian government recently proposed offering consumers an incentive of about $375 (almost 25,133 Indian Rupees) for a passenger car handed in to be scrapped in the hopes of boosting recycling rates.

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A few months ago, the state-run scrap metal trading firm MSTC Ltd. signed an agreement with the Mumbai-based Mahindra Intertrade, a part of the Mahindra Group, to set up an auto shredding and recycling plant in India. The joint venture will help meet India’s annual ferrous scrap usage requirement of about 6 mmt.

The terrible Samarco mining disaster was caused, according to owners BHP Billiton and Vale SA, by design flaws in the dam that burst and Chinese steel mills may have more customer demand after the G20 summit ends.

Samarco Disaster Caused by Design Flaws

The deadly collapse of a tailings dam last November at the Samarco mine, owned by Vale SA and BHP Billiton, was caused by drainage and design flaws, a report into Brazil’s worst-ever environmental disaster showed on Monday.

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The 76-page report commissioned by the companies responsible for the spill, which killed 19 people, attributed the dam burst to a chain of events dating back to 2009, but did not assign blame or highlight specific errors in corporate or regulatory practice.

Chinese Steel Mills Could Get Unexpected G20 Boost

When Beijing ordered hundreds of industrial plants to close ahead of China’s first-ever G20 summit next week, the government wanted to spruce up the host city of Hangzhou and ensure world leaders would gather under clear blue skies.

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In doing so, China’s leaders may have given the nation’s stricken steel mills an inadvertent leg-up, helping to restore profitability after a years-long downturn caused by weak prices as a global glut swelled and local demand slowed. Some Chinese steel plants are turning in the best margins in at least three years.

Renewable energy technology has been split into two camps since it became a reality around the turn of the century.

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On the one hand there are the passionate environmental believers for whom the inflated subsidies were an irrelevance in the face of saving our planet, and on the other were naysayers for whom the arguments about global warming were a plot by the far left to raise taxes or run some kind of tree-hugging environmental agenda at the expense of business and consumers.

Neither polarized position was fair, of course, and the quiet majority in the middle have watched the technologies become progressively more efficient and costs fall dramatically while the extremes of global warming horror stories have been discredited, but the hard science of gradually rising carbon levels has been widely accepted.

Who Cares Why The Temperature is Rising?

In the process, a wider acceptance has gained ground that global temperatures really are rising and whether it is part of a natural cycle or man-made is not a risk we can afford to take. Ultimately, action to reduce carbon emissions will be cheaper than many possible downside scenarios if left unchecked and most people would accept we are making a mess of our environment and really should behave more responsibly.

Meanwhile, politicians have been plowing our taxpayer money into supporting wind, solar and a number of other “renewable” technologies, with some degree of success. Costs for the major energy sources — solar and wind — have fallen, partly as a result of technology improvements and partly due to economies of scale, to the point now where private firms are signing up to invest in major wind projects for a tariff of just $100 per MegWatt/Hour (€90 per mw/h). Indeed, in Europe all the extra power capacity added since the mid ’90s has been renewable.

Source: Telegraph Newspaper

Source: Telegraph Newspaper

The biggest hurdle renewables now have to overcome is not the cost of production, but the curse of intermittency. Where does the power come from when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine? Read more

A new space has opened up for India’s scrap metal recycling business. The government has given its go-ahead to a “state-of-the-art” auto shredding and recycling plant, which has been in the pipeline for about a year.

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The automotive scrap shredder/recycler is the result of an agreement signed with the state-run metal scrap trading firm MSTC (formerly Metal Scrap Trade Corporation) and Mahindra Intertrade, a part of the diversified $17.8 billion Mahindra Group. Mahindra, incidentally, is a well-known auto major in India, too.

Potentially Huge Market

India’s scrap market is estimated to be in the range of about $1.8 billion, and most of the scrap required by the country, about 5-6 million metric tons, is imported.

Scrap Recycling Yard

India will soon receive its first state-of-the-art automotive recycling yard. Source: Adobe Stock/Robert Hainer.

In a thriving auto market, such as India’s, there’s no formal disposal method for end of life vehicles right now, thus the new joint venture has a ready-made market. The JV will start off with a single unit, but will soon expand across India. The idea is to save India precious foreign exchange rupees, in addition to creating jobs. Every ton of new steel manufactured from scrap will help save iron ore, coal, electricity and limestone from being produced. Read more

The decision to set up a modern, state-of-the-art auto shredding/recycling plant in India could not have come at a more opportune time. Many Indian provinces, led by New Delhi, are starting to come around to the view that older vehicles, especially those running on diesel, need to be banned.

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Older cars pollute more than the ones that adhere to the India’s latest “Bharat Stage” (pollution control) norms. The Mahindra/MSTC joint-venture is also planned to be able to scrap ships and machines.

India’s National Green Tribunal (NGT) recently asked the New Delhi local government to deregister diesel cars 10 years or older. That’s a large chunk of the approx. 8.5 million cars registered in New Delhi, which would end up being either sold outside New Delhi or totally scrapped.

The number of cars sold in India was expected to grow from 2.2 million vehicles back in 2010 to 10.6 million units by 2020. At present, about 28 million vehicles are said to be over 15 years old and ready for the scrap heap.

India’s Cash for Clunkers

The Indian Government was actively contemplating better policies in the organized and mandatory vehicle recycling business when this project came along. India had the potential to become one of largest car recycling regions, according to SteelMint Events, and the rise of recycling-friendly legislation was one of the topics to be discussed at the Scrap Recycling – Emerging Markets conference to be held in September in New Delhi.

The vehicle scrapping policy is formalized in legislation as the Voluntary Vehicle Fleet Modernization Plan (V-VMP). The bill is currently in its draft stage but, when passed, it would apply to all vehicles, regardless of engine type, bought on or before March 31, 2005. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) submitted the draft policy to the Ministry of Finance for approval. The government also recently proposed offering consumers an incentive of $375 for any passenger car handed in for scrapping to boost recycling rates.

When the policy is implemented, analysts predict about 28 million older, polluting vehicles will be taken off the roads. So, while automakers moan the NGT’s order on diesel cars in the short term, in the long-term, companies such as Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. are very happy that the policy means sales of more cars.

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. is India’s largest car maker. It believes the local car market will reach 5 million units in annual sales by 2020, making the country the fourth-largest market in the world, if the V-VMP is passed.

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The automaker’s forecast is in line with the central government’s Auto Mission Plan II that forecasts the passenger vehicle (PV) market to more than triple to 9.4 million units by 2026 from 2.8 million now if the economy grows at an average rate of 5.8% a year. If the economy grows at an average yearly pace of 7.5%, the size of the passenger vehicle market is forecast to rise to 13.4 million units, making it the world’s second-largest after China.

Olympics organizers on Monday rushed to fix bad wiring, broken plumbing and other problems in the athletes’ village in Rio de Janeiro after several foreign teams complained that accommodations were dirty and in disrepair less than two weeks before the start of the Games.

Entirely Expected

Here at MetalMiner, we often write about the quirks of Olympic construction and the graft, price inflation and other things that come along with them. We also document how major steelmakers often set up new operations just to provide products for events such as World Cups and Olympics. Brazil is definitely the rule and not the exception.

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We even scraped together a World Cup of industrial metals to see which metals were gaining the most from World Cup demand back in 2014 when Brazil was rushing to get stadiums, athlete accommodations, hotels and businesses done in time … as opposed to today when just Rio is rushing to get stadiums, athlete accommodations, hotels and businesses done in time.


Can we do Olympic construction better? Choosing cities years ahead just makes prices escalate faster anymore. Photo: Jeff Yoders

Why isn’t Olympic construction ever done on time, on budget and up to the quality standards that International Olympic Committee member-countries demand anymore? Sochi wasn’t smooth by any stretch of the imagination but, aside from the study in hubris that was Bob Costas’ pink-eye broadcasts, it’s looking like Rio’s problems dwarf Sochi’s. Yes, Rio, you made Sochi look good. Why is each Olympics worse than the last? And more costly? Read more