palladium price

Palladium has been the best performer among precious metals for some time now. Since the beginning of 2016, palladium is up 65%, easily beating the price increases seen in platinum, gold and silver.

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What factors made palladium outperform its peers and what should palladium buyers pay attention to this year?

Global Demand for Cars

The primary bullish factor might be the expansion of auto catalyst demand for palladium, particularly in China where air pollution problems are increasing. The auto sector accounts for around 80% of palladium demand.

China’s auto sales for the first two months of 2017 beat expectations and were 8.8% higher than sales for the same period in 2016. The pace is still weaker than the 14% increase reported last year by the industry as customers rushed to take advantage of tax incentives. In Q4 of 2016, China announced a 50% cut in its sales tax from 10% to 5% for small automobiles. The tax cut was effective until the end of 2016.

Most analysts were expecting a big slowdown in the largest automobile market this year, but China continues to surprise markets. The country agreed to extend the cut, although at a higher rate of 7.5%. In 2018 it will revert to 10%. Therefore, while auto sales might not beat last year’s record-breaking levels, Chinese citizens are still expected to take advantage of a lower tax in 2017.

Meanwhile, March’s figures for the world’s second-largest automotive market came in below market expectations and gave early evidence that America’s long boom cycle for automobile sales may finally be losing steam. Automakers sold 1.55 million vehicles in March, a 1.6% decline compared with the same month a year ago, capping a first-quarter performance during growth stalled.

Overall, auto markets were really strong in 2016, contributing to a 50% rise in palladium prices last year. This market might surprise again in 2017 but signs of a plateau in the U.S. and uncertainties in China due to an extended but higher tax cut are factors to watch this year.

Strong South African Currency

South African Rand Index. Source:MetalMiner analysis of @stockcharts.com data.

South Africa is the largest producer of palladium, responsible for around 40% of world output. The Rand (South African currency) has been one of the best performing currencies since 2016. A rising Rand makes South African exports more expensive to the rest of the world, limiting producers margins and potentially leading to a reduction of output. Read more

Automakers sold 1.33 million vehicles in the U.S. in February, down 1.1% from the same month a year ago, as consumers continued to shift away from buying cars in favor of trucks and SUVs.

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Our Automotive MMI fell 4.3% as well, due in part to a pull back this month in steel prices, particularly the hot-dipped galvanized variety. There’s been plenty of analysis on our site about whether the steel price fall is merely a pause in an overall up trend or a sign of deeper issues in the individual North American product markets.

Automotive MMI

If major automotive products such as cold-rolled coil and HDG are, indeed, being squeezed then prices could increase quickly in the coming months as mills take advantage of short supply, even if more capacity comes online later in the year.

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The other products that make up the index are still firmly in bull market territory with copper leading the way.

The other major automotive consumer market that creates supplier demand is China’s, the world’s largest automotive market. It saw auto sales decline by 1.1% year-on-year in January to 2.2 million units. Total vehicle sales, including trucks and buses, however, came in 0.2% higher year-on-year to 2.5 million units. Some of these numbers could be affected by the Lunar New Year holiday. China is also entering the planned final year of a major government automotive purchase rebate which could affect sales as the incentive winds down.

Actual Automotive Metal Prices

U.S. Hot-dipped galvanized steel fell 1.5% from $841 a short ton in February to $828/st this month. U.S. Platinum bars increased 2.92% from $993 an ounce in February to $1,022 an ounce this month. Primary three-month LME copper increased .08% from $5,930 per metric ton in February to $5.935/mt this month.

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We warned last month that the mostly small losses the prices our MetalMiner IndX experienced were caused by investors taking profits.

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Our suspicions were confirmed when almost all of our sub-indexes had big price rebounds this month. The Automotive MMI jumped 12.2% Raw Steels 8% and Aluminum 6%. Even our Stainless Steel MMI only dropped 1.7% and has taken off since February 1 as nickel supply is even more in question now with both the Philippines and Indonesia’s raw ore exports in question.

The bull market is on for the entire industrial metals complex. Last month’s pause was necessary for markets to digest gains but the strong positive sentiment for both manufacturing and construction shows no signs of ebbing in the U.S. and Chinese markets.

MetalMiner’s index of global precious metals prices dropped yet again this month, falling 3.8% for a January 2017 reading of 76, down from 79 in December.

Key Precious Metal Movers

The U.S. palladium price got a bit too frothy last month, resulting in a December MMI reading of $768 — which was good enough for an 18-month high.

However, for the January MMI reading, that price experienced a pullback, dipping back down under $700 per ounce (although not quite reaching November’s levels).

So a correction in that price point’s journey is evident. The U.S. platinum bar price also had a slight drop-off, as did silver and gold prices across global markets tracked by the MetalMiner IndX.

What’s Happened Since October?

Short answer: a ton.

Trump. Cubs. Brexit. Syria. Refugee crises. Panama Papers. Pokemon Go. (We could keep going…)

But a few of those had a lot to do with what’s happening across precious metals markets right now — especially gold.

Gold in Focus

What’s causing gold prices to fall dramatically? The U.S. dollar.

Gold (in dark) vs the dollar index (in green)

Gold (in dark) vs the dollar index (in green). Source: MetalMiner analysis of @stockcharts.com.

Since mid-August the dollar started a bull run that is still in play. Three main factors are propelling the dollar’s bull run, according to MetalMiner’s Raul de Frutos:

Markets expected the Federal Reserve to raise rates by the end of the year. In December the Fed raised interest rates by a quarter point, as expected, but policymakers signaled a likelihood of three increases in 2017, up from prior expectations for two moves. While interest rates outside the U.S. stay near zero or even in negative territory, it’s no wonder yield-seeking investors are going after the greenback.

The ongoing political tensions in Europe are causing the dollar to appreciate against the euro. The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe, Brexit, terrorist attacks and political instability are some of the events causing investors to lose their appetite for the European currency this year.

Finally, the victory of Donald Trump has added fuel to the dollar’s bull market. The new president-elect has proposed new tax policies that will potentially make multinational companies bring their foreign profits back to U.S., increasing the demand for dollars. In addition, the dollar is perceived as a stronger currency since investors expect growth in US to get a boost.

Essentially, what we wrote last month is still holding true, and it’s hard to see a reversal in the near term.

Exact Precious Metals Prices, Movements:

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After hitting an all-time low in December 2015 – dipping down into the 60s – the Global Precious Metals MMI rebounded a bit and is now hovering at 70 for the second consecutive month.

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Of the three heaviest-weighted metal price points within this precious sub-index, gold bullion in both the U.S. in China, and silver ingot/bars in the U.S. all increased over the the last month, the primary drivers buoying the February MMI reading.

Global-Precious-Metals_Chart_February-2016_FNL

Gold Price Outlook

The longer-term outlook, though, may not be all that rosy for gold prices. “Despite talks of China and Russia buying gold, I still see main factors such as a strong [U.S.] dollar and a bear commodity market keeping a lid on gold prices,” Raul de Frutos, metals procurement specialist for MetalMiner, told me. “The price rally seen in January is way too small to consider that something is changing in the long-term picture.”

“I still have a neutral/bearish view on gold,” he concluded.

The Bigger Price Story: Palladium Downtrend

However, in a more interesting trend on the industrial metals side of the precious sector, two of the PGM price points we track on the MetalMiner IndX – for U.S. platinum and palladium bars – dropped 1.7% and 8.1% (!), respectively.

The U.S. palladium price has ticked up for a few days in a row since we took our MMI reading on Feb. 1, but it’s lost a whopping 26.3% in value since the beginning of November 2015.

So what’s going on in the palladium market?

The recent stock market selloff in China, which caused global tumult, is the real culprit hurting both palladium and platinum. A strong dollar is not helping matters, either.

Compare Prices With The January 2016 MMI Report

Strong car sales globally – in Europe, China and the U.S., with the latter two hitting all-time highs – did not correspond with stronger performances for platinum and palladium prices.

Despite analysts calling again for deficits in palladium and platinum markets this year, Raul has written that “it’s hard to imagine these two metals rising while China keeps driving everything down.”

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Gather round, folks, dead-cat bounces for all

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And this month’s Global Precious Metals MMI was no exception – after hitting yet another all-time low of 68 last month, the sub-index bounced back up to 70 for our January reading.

Global-Precious-Metals_Chart_January-2016_FNL

As for the dead-cat bounce, the Aluminum MMI had what looked like one, my colleague Raul writes:

“Aluminum has declined more than 30% on the year-to-date. A 3% increase after such a price slump means nothing. Indeed, aluminum producers should be worried that prices are not able to make a decent rally from these low levels. That only means that investors are only interested in selling, not buying.”

The steel markets, too:

“Although steel prices took a break from their year-long fall in December, there are still many factors weighing down prices. It seems too early to bet on a recovery in prices. For corrosion-resistant steel buyers, the effects of the new import duties are certainly something to watch.”

And even the Copper MMI had a tiny one too, (stay tuned for that story, coming next week).

So, alongside the baby-sized Fed interest rate hike came a bit of a bounce for our precious metals price index. Welcome to the party.

The Platinum/Palladium Story

Putting aside gold and silver for now (global prices for which, on balance, fell for silver but rose for gold on the MetalMiner IndX), let’s focus again on the more industrial of the precious – the two PGMs we track.

As far as bigger end-use drivers go, the automotive markets have made most of the headlines lately. In China, car sales rose to the highest level ever, increasing in December by more than 23% from November 2014. That is the second consecutive month in which China’s passenger car sales grew by double digits. Here in the US, data from Ward’s Automotive Group shows 1.63 million vehicles were sold in December last year, making this the strongest month of 2015. In all of 2015, sales totaled 17.38 million, which exceeds the previous record high from 2000.

Producers like Johnson Matthey may have reason to look forward to 2016.

Compare Prices With The December MMI Report

Low gas prices, an improving labor market and low interest rates, “coupled with a solid U.S. economy, could also make 2016 a year of robust vehicle sales,” noted Commerzbank analysts recently. “This should boost platinum and palladium, which are used in auto catalysts; palladium in particular should profit because the U.S. market is gasoline-dominated.”

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After hitting a new all-time low last month, the monthly Global Precious Metals MMI® bounced back up a bit to catch its breath, and registered a value of 76 in September, an increase of 2.7% from 74 in August.

So What’s At Play? Gold Prices and Fed Hikes?

Yesterday, Reuters reported that spot gold prices lost more ground, after drifting downward the past several days.

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The precious metal was “hurt by a stronger dollar and as investors awaited a key US jobs report to gauge the timing of a Federal Reserve rate hike” – however, the global stock market [expletive]-show that has been rocking investor confidence lately may just be the only thing the Fed needs to go through with the hike.Global-Precious-Metals_Chart_September-2015_FNL

(Besides, ADP‘s private-sector jobs report, released this past Wednesday, betrays severe underperformance – fewer than 200,000 jobs have been added in 6 of the last 8 months, as mentioned here.)

Gold Drivers

The gold price points from each of the 4 global markets we track (the US, China, Japan and India) all rose over the past month, and along with platinum increases in Japan, China and the US, were the main drivers of the wholesale increase in the Global Precious Metals MMI®. That’s likely due to the fact that equities markets have been doing so poorly – no, heinously – from China to the Dow.

So, on the face of it, gold was a factor in the global precious index’s rise…but let’s turn attention to the historical lows of palladium.

“No. 2” PGM More of a Concern

Palladium, platinum’s cheaper and less scarce cousin, hit another bottom. The US price of palladium bars tracked on the MetalMiner IndX℠ clocked in at $600 per ounce (log in or join as a MetalMiner member at the bottom of this article to get full pricing to all the precious metals we track) – the lowest since November 2012.

As my colleague Jeff Yoders wrote recently, although US auto markets appear robust at the moment, there is uncertainty in China and correspondingly lower auto sales there. Chinese auto sales fell by 7.10% in July 2015 compared to July 2014, the largest fall since February 2013.

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Which won’t bode too well for catalytic converter sales, hence for PGM demand – and prices.

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US auto sales remain the bright spot in the drivers of the monthly Automotive MMI®.

The Real Steel Story

Seasonally adjusted annual rate of sales for light vehicles rose to 17.8 million compared with 17.3 million a year earlier and was the highest since July 2005, according to researcher Autodata Corp. August was the fourth consecutive month that adjusted sales remained above the 17 million mark.

Automotive August-2015The Automotive MMI® still registered only a value of 73 in September, a decrease of 3.9% from 76 in August. Weak prices for most of the base metals that make up the index (HDG, copper, aluminum and lead) abound despite strong end user sales in the US. In China, auto sales are falling with the rest of the domestic economy there.

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China Again

Chinese auto sales fell by 7.10% in July 2015 compared to July 2014, the largest fall since February 2013 and such a large economy’s fall is dragging down the prices of automotive metals just as it is dragging down the prices of oil and other commodities.

Major iron ore producers, Rio Tinto PLC, BHP Billiton, Vale SA and Fortescue Metals Group Limited have ramped up production again despite massive iron ore and steel oversupply. Zacks.com believes they intend to continue exploring for iron ore in Australia despite lower growth forecasts from China and weaker iron ore prices, betting on continued strength in iron ore demand over the long term.

What This Means For Metal Buyers

This is normal behavior from major miners such as the Big Three (Rio, BHP and Vale) and almost-there cousin Fortescue. They can make a profit by squeezing volume out of their mines at low prices based on scale, alone, but iron ore investment is coming from non-traditional miners, as well.

India’s Essar Steel is making a $1.9 billion investment in the steelmaking ingredient in Minnesota, of all places. It’s difficult to imagine how such an investment makes long-term sense for Essar without a turnaround in both iron ore and steel prices. Since high-strength automotive steel alloys are one of the best-performing steel products on today’s market, it’s even more difficult to imagine those prices turning around without continued strong auto sales in the US and Europe and a turnaround in China and other emerging markets.

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This Month’s Prices and Trends

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As the base metal and ferrous metal complexes we cover continue to take a bruising, the peripheral hits have struck our precious metals price index as well, with PGMs platinum and palladium leading the charge downward.

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In fact, the monthly Global Precious Metals MMI® registered a value of 74 in August, a decrease of 7.5% from 80 in July – thereby hitting a new all-time low. Every single metal price point for gold, silver, platinum and palladium dropped across all geographies we track, including the US, China, India and Japan.

precious metals price chart august 2015

This index has never seen the 70s before, and it’s not having a really nice day as they used to say in the ’70s (at least not for investors).

RELATED: 3 Best Practices for Buying Commodities

Precious Metal in Focus: Palladium

According to my colleague Raul de Frutos, writing at the end of July, palladium prices fell as much as 14% during that month:

Palladium price since 2013

Palladium price since 2013. Graph: MetalMiner.

Ironically, palladium was the best performer among precious metals until just about a year ago when it started to fall, Raul wrote. So far, year-to-date, palladium has tanked 32% with the most precipitous drop showing over the past two months. So what’s been driving the price meltdown?

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Due to its role in gas-powered car engines, palladium is more exposed to the Chinese and US automotive markets than to European markets. The slowdown of the Chinese automotive market over the past few months may be Public Enemy No. 1 as far as a driver of palladium’s price decline.

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Just a couple days ago, BMW and Toyota Motor Corp. publicly voiced their concerns over China’s car market, saying that the days of double-digit growth are likely over, as reported by Bloomberg. Both companies are concerned about their profits getting dinged, and are therefore cutting back production based on low demand numbers – BMW, for example, said earlier this week that it had cut production in China by 16,000 cars so far this year.

And Platinum?

South African mines, producers of 70% of the world’s supply, have been reporting production levels for platinum above those during the 5-month strike in 2014, as Raul has pointed out in his previous coverage. Combined with the lollygagging of the Chinese auto sector, looks as though platinum prices may not see a huge rebound for some time as well.

Wild Card

Remember, the strength of the US dollar plays a big role in the movement of this index. The dollar-to-euro exchange rate has been listed as the No. 1 driver of all the base metals in our latest, newly revamped monthly buying outlook, and it’s safe to say that’s no exception for gold and silver movement – when the dollar is strong, investors tend to leave gold behind as a safe haven a little more often.

The Global Precious Metals MMI® collects and weights 14 global precious metal price points to provide a unique view into precious metal price trends over a 30-day period. For more information on the Global Precious Metals MMI®, how it’s calculated or how your company can use the index, please drop us a note at: info (at) agmetalminer (dot) com.

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There was no joy in automotive metals this month as prices retreated again amid ample supply and not enough worldwide demand.

Automotive_Chart_August-2015_FNL

The monthly Automotive MMI® registered a value of 76 in August, a decrease of 7.3% from 82 in July, another all-time low for the index. Before the last two months, its previous low was 85.

Steel Prices Falling

Base metals remain in a bearish market, one that’s starting to edge on historic proportions. Also, a glut of imported steel in the US market continues to drive down prices domestically while the lack of demand overseas only exacerbates the problem here.

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US steelmakers have been forced to rely on anti-dumping actions again in hopes of creating some semblance of market equilibrium.

Steel is not the only ingredient in the Automotive MMI and its fall has been helped along liberally by steep falls for aluminum, palladium, platinum and copper.

Vehicle Sales Faltering

At least in the US, sales of automobiles are still strong, too. A sales collapse in China is one of the many effects of the stock market crash and slow economic growth there.

“There’s excessive competition and automakers are building excess capacity, and to raise utilization of the plants, they will engage in excessive selling,” Fumihiko Ike, chairman of the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, said in reference to the market many are looking at to create global sales increases.

The Chinese market is generally regarded as one that provides higher sales margins to manufacturers and Volkswagen, BMW and other manufacturers are taking on a hit on sales there.

With a continuing metals surplus and only the US end-user market in decent shape, it’s difficult to predict a turnaround for the Automotive MMI. The Thomson Reuters/Jefferies CRB Commodity Index is hitting new lows as well.

Actual Automotive Metals Prices

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