The aircraft market is having a pause.

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Suggestions that sales have collapsed or that airlines are cancelling orders are overdone. After several years of record sales and the buildup of a huge backlog, it was inevitable that new orders would slow at some point. Not least of which because aircraft makers are a victim of their own success.

Order backlogs are so long airlines are looking at new models scheduled to come out in a few years and saying, “why order the existing model — which won’t be delivered for years — when we could order the more fuel-efficient or longer-range model in a year or two from now?”

In an article this week, the Financial Times reviews slowing sales for wide-body, twin-aisle aircraft and asks is it a long-term trend that will continue or is it a result of short-term problems manufacturers have had with their new models?

What’s Selling?

At the recent peak in 2013, Boeing and Airbus logged combined net orders for 750 wide body jets. Orders fell in both 2014 and 2015, and so far this year the companies have scraped together deals for a mere 123 jets, the paper reports. But sales of single aisle aircraft have held up better as low cost carriers in particular have started flying further with smaller aircraft.

The paper quotes industry sources that say the share of widebodies in the global fleet has shrunk from roughly 25% in 1990 to about 19% today. About half of the routes flown by widebody aircraft are less than 5,500 kilometers, well within the range of the Airbus A321LR and Boeing’s new narrow-body 737 Max jet.

Smaller aircraft reduce the carriers risk: they may cost a little more per passenger to run but they are not so hard to fill. Airlines will always need bigger aircraft for the most densely traveled long-haul routes, but the smaller aircraft are posing a challenge.

FT Plane orders

Source: Financial Times.

The widebody market has also suffered from some plane-specific issues. Sales of the Airbus A380 have been slow ATW reports and Airbus cut annual production rates from 27 in 2015 to 12 by 2018, which, from a personal perspective, I feel is a shame. The A380 is a pleasure to travel in, spacious and quiet compared to previous widebody aircraft like the jumbo. Read more

It was on one of those weeks when a non-metal commodity dominated metals coverage. We mean the one that factors into just about every metal price through either production or transportation costs. The black gold that sluices across prairie and canyon in tanker cars, pipelines and trucks. The input whose value and production fluctuates at the whim of both Sheikh and wildcatter.

So, honey, then, right?

Saudi Arabia and Russia promised to work together on a “task force” to try to right-size the oil overproduction we’ve become accustomed to over the past two years. MetalMiner Co-Founder Stuart Burns warns that the days of $100 per barrel are, indeed, long gone but something could still come of this latest effort to rein in production. Naturally, the markets ebbed and flowed on speculation of what, exactly, that might be like a small ocean of the stuff filling to the brim a tanker bound for China.

Negative on that Manufacturing Growth

The Institute of Supply Management‘s manufacturing index turned negative in July for the first time since February. And the services gauge fell last month to the lowest level since early 2010. Perhaps the economy’s not doing as great as we thought it was?

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The manufacturing index dropped to 49.4% from 52.6% in August and the ISM services gauge retreated to 51.4% from 55.5%. The combined reading of two indexes was also the weakest in six years.

Transshipment Trouble

Last week, we wrote about China Zhongwang and its billionaire owner, Chinese Communist Party member Liu Zhongtian, buying U.S-based extruder Aleris. Well, more trouble this week for Zhongwang as the Commerce Department launched a new investigation into transshipments related to nearly 1 million metric tons of aluminum stored in rural Mexico.

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Zhongtian says he and his company have nothing to do with it. The Wall Street Journal? Well, it says shipping documents and sales receipts related to the massive stockpile all lead back to Zhongwang.

Less Titanium Production in Utah

Instead of forming titanium sponge by passing titanium tetrachloride in a gaseous phase over molten magnesium or sodium at its Rowley, Utah, facility, Allegheny Technologies, Inc., is cutting out the middle man. The specialty metals producer will now buy its titanium sponge on the open market. By idling the Rowley titanium facility indefinitely, ATI is also cutting 140 jobs. Read more

Allegheny Technologies, Inc. (ATI) has decided to idle its state-of-the-art Rowley, Utah, titanium sponge plant.

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Titanium sponge is a key raw material to produce ATI’s titanium products. While global titanium-sponge production has increased significantly in the last couple of years, the global industrial-grade titanium market has continued to be weak. As a result of these two factors, ATI is now able to purchase titanium-sponge in the global market at prices below Rowley’s cost of production.

Extreme detailed surface of Titanium Aura Crystal Cluster

Titanium sponge is now available at lower costs on the open market than for ATI to produce it themselves. Titanium cluster image courtesy of AdobeStock/Tomatito26.

ATI stated that it is able to procure from qualified global producers even aerospace-quality sponge under long-term agreements. ATI has entered into competitive long-term agreements with qualified producers for both standard and premium titanium sponge. The Rowley facility will be idled by the end of 2016 in a manner that allows the facility to be restarted in the future if a reopening is supported by market conditions.

ATI Consolidation

In addition to the idling of Rowley, higher cost titanium hot-working operations in Albany, Ore., will be consolidated into other operations. Read more

Rich Harshman, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, of Allegheny Technologies, Inc. (ATI) emphasized in the company’s Q2 2016 earnings call last week that sales to the aerospace and defense market continue to drive ATI’s results, representing over 50% of total 2016 sales.

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Harshman said, “Our aerospace market is being driven, in large part, by the growth of ATI’s next-generation mill products, forgings and castings.”


Defense, in both the aerospace engine and airframe segments, are helping ATI’s bottom line. Source: Department of Defense.

ATI’s business strategy is heavily focused on products which are proprietary to ATI or have high barriers to entry.  Based on long-term agreements, its technological prowess and its ability to meet build rate schedules, ATI seems well-positioned to capitalize on the increased build rates in commercial aerospace.

ATI has a foothold in legacy programs for both airframes and jet engines but has also been part of the research and development for the next generation of both. ATI has been awarded 300 new parts contracts which will represent over $1 billion n new business from 2016-2020.  The long-term agreements (LTAs) will lead to significant growth in ATI’s components business in precision forgings and castings as well as in powder metal alloys, which are usually used for additive manufacturing or 3D printing. Read more

Alcoa, Inc., recently opened a state-of-the-art, 3D printing metal powder production facility in its Pittsburgh area Alcoa Technology Center.

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The lightweight metals center will produce proprietary titanium, nickel and aluminum powders optimized for 3D printed aerospace parts. Alcoa has invested in a range of technologies to further develop additive manufacturing processes, product design and qualification.

Alcoa Technology Center

The Alcoa Technology Center near Pittsburgh has been expanded to accommodate new research into 3D printing technology. Source: Alcoa

“Alcoa is forging a leadership path in additive manufacturing with a sharp focus on the critical input material—metal powders,” said Alcoa Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Klaus Kleinfeld. “We are combining our expertise in metallurgy, manufacturing, design and product qualification to push beyond the possibilities of today’s 3D printing technologies for aerospace and other growth markets.”

Arconic Will Inherit 3D Printing Research

The facility will form part of the spin-off, value-added metals company Arconic following separation from Alcoa’s traditional commodity business in the second half of 2016. The plant is part of a $60 million investment in 3D printing materials and processes that builds on the Alcoa’ 3D printing capabilities in California, Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Texas. Read more

Allegheny Technologies, Inc., reported in its first quarter earnings call this week that its high-performance materials and components segment sales were up. Sales were $493 million in the first quarter, up approximately 8% compared to the fourth quarter of 2015. 73% of segment sales were to the aerospace and defense market.

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Operating profit increased by nearly 40%, compared to the fourth-quarter 2015. Segment operating profit was 5.9% of sales.

New Generation of Jet Engine Parts

ATI’s product mix improved through increased sales of next-generation jet engine advanced materials. Sales of nickel-based alloys and specialty alloys increased by 8%, and sales of titanium and titanium alloys increased by 17%. Sales of ATI’s precision forgings increased 15%, driven nearly exclusively by growing demand for jet engine components and airframe forgings.


ATI is very pleased with its sales of airframe and jet engine materials.

“Our differentiated products here include proprietary and unique alloys, as well as products that few others can make,” ATI CEO and President Richard Harshman said, “such as ATI 718+ alloy, Rene 65 alloy, ATI 720 alloy large billets, plasma arc-melted titanium alloys, powder metals, titanium aluminides, as well as hot-die forgings, isothermal forgings and titanium investment castings.”

PAM Power

ATI is currently the only qualified plasma arc melt producer of titanium alloys used for jet engine rotating parts.

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PAM is the preferred process for titanium alloys used in jet engine rotating parts for much of the industry.

“ATI has the most powerful open-die press forge in the industry, which enables fine-grained structure in complex nickel-based super alloy billet and the billetizing of powder alloys,” Harshman said. “ATI is one of only two independent and integrated qualified producers of nickel super-alloy powders and isothermal forged parts.”

Yorkshire UK-based 3D printing raw materials provider Metalysis recently reported a combined investment of  $29 million (£20 million) from Woodford Patient Capital Trust — managed by Neil Woodford, one of Britain’s most prominent fund managers — and Iluka Resources, an existing investor in Metalysis.

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Iluka has increased its interest in the Company to 28.8% as a result of this funding round. Other existing investors, such as BHP Billiton, are maintaining their stakes in the company.

Metalysis' oxide production process vs. the longer traditional one.

Metalysis’ oxide production process vs. the longer traditional one. Source: Metalysis.

Metalysis’ technology produces metal powders — primarily titanium, tantalum and bespoke alloys — at lower cost than traditional manufacturing processes and with reduced environmental impact. The increased use of metal powders in 3D printing is driving innovation in several sectors, including aerospace, automotive and biomedical engineering. This investment will support Metalysis’ growth and its commercial rollout, through strategic partnerships and licensing of its disruptive 3D printing powder technology.

DLMS Printing

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) printing is a process optimized for 3D printing metals rather than plastics or other materials. Instead of melting plastics and binders, DMLS printers actually create tiny welds using powders such as Metalysis’. Last April, Metalysis’ Director of Business Development, Dr. Kartik Rao, discussed how the company wants to change manufacturing with my colleague, Stuart Burns.

Rather than break raw metals down into powders, The Metalysis process transforms metal oxides into then-sinterable powders. It’s a cleaner and less-costly process.

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Metalysis’ technology produces high-grade metal powders directly from oxides in fewer steps. The lower-cost powders suit a wide variety of 3D printing needs across a variety of high-tech, industrial and manufacturing sectors. Metalysis recently completed a program with TWI, a UK leader in materials technology innovation, which demonstrated the feasibility of its bespoke powders for 3D-printing orthopedic hip implants.

Can titanium be used as a cost-effective material to make bicycle frames for the average commuter? The superstrong metal has long been used for decades in the creation of high-end bikes that are used, mostly, by consumers willing to pay a premium for more costly materials and more difficult tooling.

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Could 3D printing technologies replace more costly manufacturing processes and take away tooling costs to create a sweet spot for titanium as a lifestyle bike?


SOLID is a titanium-framed bicycle manufactured using DMLS 3D printing. Its production process could significantly reduce costs for specialty metal bicycle frames. Source: Industry.

Portland-based design consultancy Industry, and Ti Cycles founder, Dave Levy took a big step toward finding out when created they first 3D-printed, titanium-framed bicycle, known as SOLID, for the Oregon Manifesto bike design competition in 2014.

The Competition

The annual contest is an independent innovation platform for building the urban utility bike. In 2014, its organizers partnered high-level design firms with American bicycle craftsmen to collaboratively develop the next-wave urban bike. Five teams from five cycling-centric cities competed to concept, create and champion their unique vision of tomorrow’s bicycle for the everyday rider.

Read more

Engineers have produced a new nickel, copper and titanium “memory” alloy that that springs back into shape even after it is bent more than 10 million times.

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The journal Science reported that the new shape memory alloy shatters previous records for bending and is so resilient it could be useful in artificial heart valves, aircraft components or a new generation of solid-state refrigerators.


Shape memory alloy photo courtesy of Rodrigo De Miranda/University of Kiel.

shape memory alloys (SMAs) are already used in surgical operations and other applications. A stent, for example, might be squashed into a small space and then spring into its designed shape to prop open a blood vessel.

When SMAs are bent or otherwise structurally deformed, the stress (in the form of heat or electrical current) causes the SMA to spring back to its original design.

Yet, as a technology, the alloys have never entirely fulfilled their promise and entered the world of “high-cycle fatigue” applications.

Read more

An exciting development in the UK heralds more widespread adoption of additive layer manufacturing, or 3D printing, from titanium powder far beyond its current limited use in the aerospace industry.

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The UK’s Aerospace Technology Institute (ATI) has agreed to invest £1.5 million ($2.3 million) in a collaborative R&D project, led by GKN Aerospace and Metalysis, the specialist metals technology company with partners Phoenix Scientific Industries Ltd. and The University of Leeds to develop the use of Metalysis’ high quality, low-cost titanium powder for use in aerospace additive manufacturing for the first time with a commercial partner.


Titanium castings made from rutile. Image courtesy of GKN Aerospace.

In an interview with MetalMiner, Dr. Kartik Rao, Director of Business Development at Metalysis discussed the potential benefits for not just additive manufacturing as a technology but for the adoption of titanium 3D printed parts across a range of industries.

Reduction in Costs

The cost of the powder in 3D parts makes up roughly 50% of the final cost, Rao explained, so a significant reduction in powder costs could be a major spur to the adoption of such technology in more applications and in industries beyond aerospace and medical devices, such as automotive.

Read more