Tag: silicon

This Morning in Metals: Chile’s industrial output, copper production fall in February

This morning in metals news: Chile’s INE reported the country’s industrial production, including copper production, fell in February; meanwhile, US automotive sales fell in February; and, lastly, the United States […]

UK’s CDC Group Invests Heavily in India’s Renewable Energy Projects

UK’s CDC Group Invests Heavily in India’s Renewable Energy Projects

India’s renewable energy sector just got bigger thanks to an investment from U.K.-owned CDC Group of up to $100 million to support renewable energy projects.
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The announcement was made by the U.K.’s Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industry Strategy Greg Clark at the inaugural India-U.K. Energy for Growth Dialogue in New Delhi on April 6. He also met with India’s Minister for Power, New & Renewable Energy, Coal and Mines, Piyush Goyal, to talk about large-scale, private sector investments between the two countries in the area of energy.
The two ministers agreed that on the power and renewables front, the focus will be on the introduction of performance-improving smart technologies, energy efficiency and accelerating the deployment of renewable energy.
For some time now, CDC Group Plc, the U.K. government’s development finance institution, has made its known that it seeks to set up its own renewable energy platform focused on the eastern part of India, and even neighboring countries such as Bangladesh.
The finance institution is contemplating leveraging its experience in running Globeleq Africa, a company in which it acquired a majority stake in 2015, for green energy investments in Asia. Globeleq has a 1,200-megawatt gren power generation capacity spread across Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania.
As reported by MetalMiner, India aims to generate over half of its electricity through renewable and nuclear energy by 2027. The world’s largest democracy published a draft 10-year national electricity plan in December, which said it aimed to generate 275 gigawatts of renewable energy, and about 85 gw of other non-fossil fuel power such as nuclear energy, by the next decade. This would make up 57% of the country’s total electricity capacity by 2027, more than meeting its commitment to the Paris Agreement of generating 40% of its power through non-fossil fuel means by 2030.
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India has been taking massive forward strides in the renewable energy sector. Already, as per one estimate, it is set to overtake Japan as the world’s third-largest solar power market in 2017. Taiwanese research firm EnergyTrend predicted that the global solar photovoltaic demand was expected to remain stable at 74 gw in 2017, with the Indian market experiencing sustained growth. The country was expected to add 14% to the global solar photovoltaic demand, the equivalent of the addition of 90 gw over the next five years.

Renewables MMI: China’s Play to Rule Solar Panel Manufacturing

China is now home to two-thirds of the world’s solar-production capacity.
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The efficiency with which China’s solar products convert sunlight into electricity is increasingly close to that of panels made by American, German and South Korean companies. Because China also buys half of the world’s new solar panels, the country now effectively controls the panel market.
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A recent New York Times article details the meteoric rise of China’s solar industry and how its dominance in growing markets complicates the Trump administration’s attempts to cut down the U.S. trade deficit with China. China’s policy shifts and business decisions now have global impact on solar prices and production, particularly of crystalline polysilicon photovoltaic panels, everywhere else in the world.
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Now that China is cutting subsidies that it offers to panel manufacturers there, the ripples are being felt by installers in the U.S. and elsewhere. China’s solar-panel makers have recently cut their prices by more than a quarter, sending global prices plummeting. The NYT reports that Western companies have found themselves unable to compete. They have cut jobs from Germany to Michigan to Texas and the account includes the case of Russell Abney, a 49-year-old equipment engineer from Perrysburg, Ohio. The American panel manufacturer he worked for laid off Abney, among others, to remain competitive after China yanked its subsidies and manufacturers there lowered domestic prices to compensate.
If China’s dominance of solar panel manufacturing remains, able to move markets and cause layoffs worldwide depending on which subsidies are continued and which are scrapped, then the solar panel silicon market is likely to remain in the low-price rut we’ve documented in the Renewables MMI since 2012.
The Renewables MMI fell one point to 54 this month.

Renewables MMI: California Utilities Try to Shift to Solar Storage… Tesla’s Helping

We have long lamented that while solar energy production is a mature generation technology that should be used in nearly the entire U.S., the inability of our electronic grid in much of the country to store solar-generated energy limits its use to when the sun is shining. This almost always requires a backup (usually burning natural gas) for those hours when the sun does not shine.
Renewables MMIIt’s been a few years since we last talked about the baseline load problem that causes utilities that have abundant solar generation, particularly subsidized photovoltaic silicon panels on homeowners’ roofs, to bring energy costs down to zero during the day while the complete lack of generation at night forces them to give much of their short-term stored energy away before the sun goes down.

California Dreamin’: Solar for All

The Wall Street Journal recently reported that, stepping in where government and university research have failed to deliver solutions, for-profit California utilities — including PG&E Corp., Edison International and Sempra Energy — are testing new ways to network solar panels, battery storage, two-way communication devices and software to create “virtual power plants” that manage green power and feed it into California’s power grid. In California, real-time wholesale energy prices often hit zero during the day while the need for energy at night can spike them to as high as $1,000 a megawatt hour.
If California wants to stand as a land of free-flowing solar without even the need of the fossil fuel industries that the Trump administration says it wants to re-energize, then it will need a way to store its solar power, particularly if it wants to retire its last nuclear plant in 2025. Power company AES brought 400,000 lithium-ion batteries online last month in Escondido, Calif., (near San Diego) where Sempra plans to use them as a “virtual power plant” to smooth out its energy flows over the 24-hour service day.
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Electric car manufacturer Tesla, Inc. is supplying batteries to Los Angeles area network that will serve Edison International, to create the largest storage facility in the world if no one builds a bigger one by 2020 when it’s slated to be completed. The facility will be able to deliver 360 mw/h to the grid for a full day on short notice.
The 2,2000-mw Diablo Canyon nuclear plant is owned by PG&E, which wants to retire it by 2025 to meet stringent state energy codes as well avoid costly upgrades to the aging plant. Its first unit began churning out power in 1986 for the company then known as Pacific Gas & Electric.
Many utilities avoid building lithium-ion battery virtual plants because they remain considerably more expensive to build and set up than traditional power plants. California’s state laws make them more desirable there because of both environmental policies (read, climate change goals) and the regulatory hurdles and costs of just building a new plant in the Golden State. Of course, that hasn’t stopped the state from approving and building them, but the utilities that have shuttered plants early are now turning to the virtual plants to shore up their own bottom lines. PG&E Is testing batteries, software and several technologies to upgrade its grid and replace Diablo Canyon.

Intermittency, What is it Good For?

If Tesla, PG&E, Sempra and Edison can solve the grid intermittence problem in California then economies of scale could reduce the costs of virtual plants elsewhere and incentivize grid modernization via market prices rather than regulation. The costs of energy from a virtual plant will still likely cost more per mw/h than those of a new gas peaker plant, but only experimentation in cost reduction from actual working plants providing energy 24/7 can bring down those costs and deliver the innovation necessary to both optimize and right-size battery-based virtual plants. The utilities deserve praise from both customers and investors for boldly going where none have gone before. Once again, the market provides.
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The Renewables MMI inched up 1.9% this month in the very mature actual metals market.

Renewables MMI Up as US Solar Jobs Expansion Continues

It can be tempting to lump our Renewables MMI in with the Rare Earths MMI as sub-indexes that rarely move with fairly calm, if lower-priced, markets.
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That might be true of the once-high-flying RE market, but to say that about renewables would be a mistake. Sure, many of the magnets and batteries derived from rare earth elements end up in wind power installations and hybrid/electric cars so there’s a direct relation from end use, but the real difference maker in the renewables market is solar.
An estimated 2% of all new jobs created in 2016 in the U.S. came from the solar industry, according to the Department of Energy. 10% Of those jobs came from non-warm weather climes such as Colorado, too, so regional limitation is essentially over. The solar industry employs more than three times the amount of people as the coal industry, despite the political power of the latter. Solar installations are expected to rise by 29% this year from last. While wind and other renewable technologies have a long road to adoption, the solar industry is largely “there” when it comes to supplying energy directly to homes and businesses with solar silicon photovoltaic panels affixed to them and even directly to modern energy grids.

Aside from those statistics, too, there are market forces at play that make solar adoption a strong investment opportunity. China’s National Energy Administration has revealed its solar power production more than doubled in 2016, hitting 77.42 gigawatts, making China the world’s largest producer of solar energy.
But Jeff, you say, isn’t this just yet another promised tipping point? Haven’t we been promised all of this before? What makes me feel different about these studies is that they are based on jobs, and not adoption numbers alone. You may have noticed that we have a new President who is very eager to develop new American jobs. As much as President Donald Trump might like oil pipelines, coal mines and steel mills, he’ll need solar to create millions of American jobs and to make us all tired of winning so much.
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The DOE report says 187,117 workers are employed at coal, oil, and natural gas power plants compared to nearly 374,000 people in the solar industry. This is somewhat misleading because an array of direct and indirect jobs related to exploration, excavation, construction, and well surveying—still employs millions of people come from fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas exploration and those aren’t counted. Still, the National Solar Jobs Census 2016 documents truly dramatic growth of a the solar industry in less than a decade and that 10% projected increase isn’t something the Trump administration can afford to miss. Workers who install rooftop solar panels make up the largest share employment in the sector at 137,133 jobs.
Increasing installations would be considered the low-hanging fruit of jobs growth. The Renewables MMI was up 2% this month.

Europe Recommends 2-Year Extension of Chinese Solar Tariffs

It looks as if European Union tariffs on Chinese solar materials will last a little longer.
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In a presentation of the preliminary results of its anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigation into the import of Chinese solar modules and photovoltaic cells into the E.U., the European Commission has proposed an extension of the current tariffs on Chinese solar panel raw materials for two more years once the current tariffs expire in March.

Based on confidential documents Reuters reviewed, the Commission said ending the measures would likely lead to a continuation of Chinese subsidies for the solar sector and a significant increase in dumped imports of solar cells and modules.
So, no lucrative European markets without tariffs for China, but some in the European solar industry are also blanching at a continuing lack of competition for solar projects.
SolarPower Europe president Oliver Schaefer told PV Magazine that the Commission’s recommendation to maintain the trade measures for another two years is the wrong decision, stressing that the organization will look to E.U. member nations to redress some of what it calls the “inaccuracies reported.”
“Opening ex-officio interim reviews on the minimum import price mechanism is simply tinkering at the edges of a profound issue of European-wide importance,” Schaefer said.
European manufacturers of the panels, however, were all for continuing the tariffs. EU ProSun, a manufacturers’ group that includes Germany’s SolarWorld said there is no shortage of competitively priced cells and modules in Europe and that the depressed E.U. market was due to political decisions, such as to reduce payments for green energy, not the import measures.
The EC report, itself, said turning back the tariff measures would only have a limited effect on demand and that comparisons between the 50,000 people working in importing and installation and the 5,000 to 10,000 in manufacturing were not appropriate. Job gains in the former could be outweighed by losses in the latter, the report stated.
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Demand for solar panels in Europe is certainly stronger than North America right now, but both industries still rely heavily on government subsidies and prices, as a result, have stabilized at the low level we’ve observed for over three years now. The Renewables MMI was up one point this month.

India Completes World’s Largest Solar Park… Pakistan Plans a Bigger One

India Completes World’s Largest Solar Park… Pakistan Plans a Bigger One

India has brought the world’s largest solar power plant online.

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At the end of November, the world’s biggest solar power plant was completed in the southern part of India and its already generating power.

Spread over 2,500 acres in the Tamil Nadu province, the new solar plant replaces the Topaz Solar Farm in Riverside County, Calif., as the largest solar power farm in one location in the world. The Indian solar farm can generate 648 megawatts of green electricity, while Topaz generates 550 mw. India aims to power about 60 million homes by using solar energy by 2022. The Tamil Nadu plant, built by Adani Power, can light up about 150,000 homes. India aims to produce 40% of its electricity from renewables by 2022.

Super Solar Park

Here are some statistics related to the Tamil Nadu plant:

  • The site in Tamil Nadu is the size of nearly 60 Taj Mahals.
  • The area of the crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar panels alone can hold 476 soccer fields.
  • Includes 380,000 foundations, 2.5 million solar modules, 27,000 metric tons of structural steel and concrete.
  • Has 576 inverters, 154 transformers and 6,000 kilometers of cables (almost the equivalent distance between India to Australia).
  • Overall cost of the mega-structure was approximately $679 million.

Even as the Indian government and its people were basking in the glow of being number, came fresh information from neighboring Pakistan. A minister there announced that his country would be setting up the world’s largest solar park of 1,000 mw as part of its plan to promote production of renewable energy in the country. Everybody wants to be the biggest and best, apparently.

It’s Not Easy Being Number One

Pakistan’s Minister of Climate Change Zahid Hamid was quoted in media reports as saying his nation had enacted the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act 2016 to promote effective conservation and efficient use of energy. The Minister had led a Pakistani delegation in the recently-concluded COP22 Conference in Morocco where he highlighted the achievements made to address the impact of climate change.

While having the largest solar park may, indeed, be a fleeting thing — Topaz topped two other solar parks in California before it was passed — Tamil Nadu is one of nine operated by Adani Green Energy Limited across India and the company has set itself an ambitious goal of generating 10,000 megawatts of solar power within the next five years. The plant has a huge number of solar panels which are cleaned daily by a robotic system, itself powered by its own solar panel.

The solar farm is part of the Indian government’s ambitious target to reduce carbon emissions by 33-35%. Some news reports claimed the new plant had pushed India’s installed solar capacity past 10 gigawatts, which makes the country the world’s third-biggest solar market after all the panels go online next year, just behind China and the U.S.

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