Articles in Category: Automotive

The Automotive MMI (Monthly Metals Index) stood pat this past month, holding at 100 for the second consecutive month. 

Within the basket of metals, U.S. HDG steel rose 5.8% on the month, while U.S. shredded scrap steel jumped 8.4%. Palladium continues to outpace platinum — atypical of the two metals’ historical relationship — and Chinese primary lead dropped 3.8%.

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Meanwhile, LME copper continued to cool off, dropping 3.5% month over month as of March 1.

U.S. Auto Sales

February was a slow month for a lot of U.S. automakers.

General Motors saw its U.S. sales drop 7.0% year over year, while its year-to-date sales (i.e. through the end of February) are down 3.2%, according to recently released Autodata Corp sales data.

Ford Motor Company, too, had a slow month, posting a 6.8% drop year over year and a 6.6% year-to-date decline.

Fiat Chrysler‘s numbers dropped 1.4% year over year and are down 6.8% in the year to date.

Toyota, on the other hand, had another good month in 2018, posting a 4.5% increase year over year. Toyota’s sales are up 10% in the year to date. Volkswagen also had a strong month, increasing 8.4% year over year and 7.7% in the year to date. Albeit on smaller volumes, Mitsubishi (18.8%) and Mazda (12.7%) also managed strong year-over-year sales jumps in February.

Light trucks continue to be a favorite in the U.S. market. Light truck sales jumped 3.8% year over year, and are up 5.9% in the year to date. Meanwhile, sales of passenger cars dropped 12.6% year over year last month, and their year-to-date sales have dropped 11.9%.

Tariffs Talk

President Donald Trump’s announcement Thursday that his administration plans to impose tariffs of 25% on steel imports and 10% on aluminum imports have sent shock waves throughout the world. Downstream producers, trading allies (like Canada and the European Union) and even U.S. politicians have expressed the hope that the president might reconsider. (For the MetalMiner team’s full analysis of the Section 232 announcement, visit our dedicated Section 232 Investigation Impact Report page).

Naturally, downstream producers, including major automakers, reliant on imports of steel and aluminum are apprehensive. In the marketplace, investors are apparently feeling the same way.

As CNBC reported, a number of automakers saw their stocks drop after Trump’s announcement (which has yet to be officially enacted as policy). GM closed 4% lower, while Ford and Toyota closed 3% lower apiece, according to the report.

The U.S. Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association (MEMA) came out in strong opposition to the tariffs proposal.

“The tariffs announced today will be detrimental to the motor vehicle parts supplier industry and the 871,000 US jobs it directly creates,” said Steve Handschuh, MEMA president and CEO, in a prepared statement. “We have voiced repeatedly that while we support the administration’s focus on strong domestic steel and aluminum markets, tariffs limit access to necessary specialty products, raise the cost of motor vehicles to consumers, and impair the industry’s ability to compete in the global marketplace. This is not a step in the right direction.”

While those in the steel and aluminum industries have argued price increases that would arise as a result of the tariffs would not be severe, downstream producers, including automakers, have balked at that suggestion.

In another policy arena, the tariffs announcement also has an effect on the ongoing renegotiation talks focusing on the 24-year-old North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Throughout the proceedings, which began last August and have now gone through seven rounds, the U.S. has sought to win tighter rules on rules of origin for automotive materials, among other concessions.

Canada, the top exporter of steel and aluminum to the U.S., has expressed significant concern about the prospective tariffs. The Washington Post reported that Canada is “flabbergasted” at the tariffs proposal, according to Douglas Porter, the chief economist at the Bank of Montreal.

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Before we head into the weekend, let’s take a look back at the week that was and some of the stories here on MetalMiner:

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  • What’s up with aluminum? After a strong 2017 the metal hasn’t seen as much upward movement as some other base metals. Our Stuart Burns looked into why that might be.
  • Meanwhile, the British steel industry could be due for a jolt of investment, leading to some signs of a recovery, Burns writes.
  • There’s a new name entering the electric vehicles fray, Burns writes, and it might not be a brand you’d associate with the automotive sector.
  • In light of the markets’ recent volatility, Irene Martinez Canorea surveyed the relationship between the VIX — the ticker symbol for the CBOE’s Volatility Index — and commodities.
  • In case you missed it, last Friday the Department of Commerce made public it Section 232 reports and recommendations on steel and aluminum (the reports had already been sent on to the president last month). Lisa Reisman and Irene Martinez Canorea broke down the reports and their implications for aluminum, specifically. Check out the three-part series at the following links: Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3.
  • Lithium is a material that’s both rare and increasingly coveted for applications like electric vehicle batteries. So, is the world doomed to run out of it, or will demand encourage investment in finding new supply? Burns delved into the matter earlier this week.
  • The U.S. International Trade Commission voted last week that imports of carbon and alloy wire rod from South Africa and Ukraine are injurious to the domestic industry.
  • We touched on Section 232 aluminum above — what about steel? Reisman added her thoughts on the steel investigation, ranging from capacity utilization rates to trade remedies to talks of a looming trade war.

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Initially, electric and now the development of autonomous cars has been a major disrupter for the auto industry, the effects of which we have only just begun to see.

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Traditional auto manufacturers were initially written off as having too much legacy investments in the internal combustion engine and insufficient technology to keep up with the development of electric and self-driving cars. However, the last year or two has seen the likes of Nissan, General Motors, and a host of others bring out if not cutting edge electric vehicles to challenge Tesla’s sexy image at least viable mainstream products with greater delivery dependability than Tesla’s Model 3 rollout is achieving.

While starting from a low base growth has been solid, and although the electric vehicle (EV) challenge has driven much improved economy from the internal combustion engine, EVs are still carving out a place for themselves as battery performance steadily improves and charging infrastructure expands.

So far the contest has been between established mainstream automakers – GM, Ford, Daimler, BMW, etc., and Silicon Valley tech firms (Tesla, Google and others), but so disruptive are the technological changes that challengers from other areas are throwing their hat into the ring.

Electric and autonomous carmaking requires a marriage of innovation and highly developed manufacturing experience. Tesla has the former but not the latter – witness the debacle of the Model 3. The established carmakers have the latter but not the former – witness their scramble to buy technology start-ups to bolt on the skills.

But a highly successful and highly innovative manufacturer with world-class experience in electrical product manufacturing is entering the fray with a £2 billion (U.S. $2.8 billion) bet.

Dyson is planning to invest in a new automotive manufacturing operation with R&D at its head quarters near Malmsbury in the U.K. Apart from expertise in electric motors, Dyson has also worked extensively in plastics, the Financial Times explains, leading some to speculate the first vehicle may be substantially comprised of plastics rather than metals, ostensibly to make the cars lighter and also allow for more inventive designs.

They also have the money, as growth has been impressive, achieved on the back of relentless innovation and clever product design. Nor does Dyson have to answer to the stock market or have to watch the share price in the way a listed firm does, which allows them to take the long view on high-risk projects.

Three models are said to be in mind. The initial ONE would be a low production run to develop the technologies and build out a supply chain. This first vehicle would likely use lithium-ion batteries, but later models would use next generation solid-state batteries, a technology Dyson is, if not a world leader, then certainly at the cutting edge. Among existing carmakers, only Toyota has laid out a timeline to release a solid-state battery powered car by 2025, the Financial Times says.

Dyson has an ambitious program, particularly considering it hasn’t even decided where they will manufacture the cars. The firm is looking to launch its first low production run model – in the region of thousands, not tens or hundreds of thousands by 2021, followed later by high volume models 2 and 3 based on more advanced battery technology.

Dyson is most likely to set up manufacturing in Asia, as that is where it sees its biggest sales market. More specifically, it would probably set up in Singapore or Malaysia, where it already has extensive manufacturing infrastructure for its electrical products.

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Where Dyson may have a lead is in this solid-state battery technology. Batteries and, hence, range are considered the key to wider EV uptake. Where Dyson may struggle further down the road is in the development of autonomous self-driving cars, where its success in developing a viable product will depend on the extent to which such technologies become mainstream and available from specialist suppliers, rather than held in-house as proprietary patented technologies by the likes of Google, Tesla and others.

The automobile frequently comes in for criticism for its role in environmental pollution, not just in contributing to Co2 levels but more often for the output of carcinogenic particulate matter emissions, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, all of which contribute to an estimated 29,000 deaths in the U.K., according to Public Health England, 200,000 in the U.S. and some 4.2 million globally.

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Concerns have driven a rapid migration from previously very popular diesel engines to petrol and hybrid in Europe. Up to now, little or no attention has been given to that other major component of the transport industry: rail.

Electrification in the EEA

At the point of use, 53% of the rail network in the 33 countries in the European Economic Area (EEA) are electrified, but concentrations vary, with some, like France, in excess of 80% and others only 40% electrified (as in the U.K.). Electrified lines create no pollution, at least in stations and for people living near rail lines, but diesel emissions can be unacceptably high within large, enclosed terminus stations.

London’s Paddington station (one of four major terminus stations serving London) serves 38 million passengers a year, according to a report by Railway Technology, yet it is only the seventh-busiest station in the U.K. Up to 70% of the trains using the station are powered by diesel; as a result, Paddington experiences peak emission far exceeding European recommendations.

For some bizarre reason, which probably has everything to do with political expediency, U.K. railway stations are not required to comply with air quality standards imposed by the E.U., despite the fact that 8 million passengers pass through them every day. This exemption may have something to do with the fact British rolling stock has a mean age of 18 years, meaning a sizable portion was deployed 11 years before E.U. emissions regulations Stage 111A/B, most recently updated in 2012, took effect, and is therefore exempt.

A Carrot-and-Stick Approach

Now many would argue rail, along with waterways, are some of the most environmentally friendly forms of transport we have. The report states they were the only modes that recorded an absolute decrease in energy consumption between 1990 and 2013 within the 33 member countries of the EEA.

Even so, change has been slow and the British government is not alone in seeking a carrot-and-stick approach to encouraging faster innovation and greater investment.

According to The Telegraph, article Britain’s Rail Minister Jo Johnson will announce a plan to drastically cut pollution on Britain’s rail network. Citing the switch automotive is making from diesel to cleaner fuels, the minister set an ambitious target of removing all diesel trains from U.K. tracks by 2040 and in their place he signaled his ambition to see a wave of environmentally friendly hydrogen trains. The first of those trains is expected to be trialed as early as 2021, while battery trains are already undergoing trials in the U.K.

Elsewhere in Europe

Germany has already signed a deal with France’s Alstom, Europe’s leader in hydrogen train technology to operate 14 zero-emission hydrogen trains in Lower Saxony, Germany. According to the Times, the Coradia iLint train can cover up to 620 miles at a time and reach a maximum speed of 87 mph.

Users are raising concerns about who is going to pay for the U.K. to upgrade from diesel to battery and hydrogen locomotives. Cost aside, this clearly represents a massive investment opportunity.

Setting the Table

With a government framework in place, manufacturers would be more willing to invest in facilities within the U.K. to meet the long-term upgrade demand; without clear guidelines, the industry is more likely to buy piecemeal from foreign manufacturers.

British governments of all colors have a habit of setting targets or voicing aspirations and then stepping back and letting the market get on with it. They seem not to learn that investors need a framework and timeframe to give them the confidence to invest.

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This time may be no different.

The Steel Market Development Institute (SMDI) presented results of a new study on steel’s lightweighting capabilities during the Chicago Auto Show on Thursday, Feb. 8, at McCormick Place in Chicago. Photo by Fouad Egbaria

Use of aluminum in automotive bodies has gained steam in recent years — and the metal’s rivalry with steel has heated up in the process.

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For example, Ford Motor Co. shook up the marketplace when it announced its all-aluminum body F-150 2015 model. Aluminum, despite being more costly than steel, is lauded for its lighter weight and, thus, ability to provide better fuel economy.

Not so fast on that front, according to a study presented by the Steel Market Development Institute (SMDI) on Thursday, Feb. 8, during the annual Chicago Auto Show.

SMDI, a business arm of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), presented results of a study that concludes steel is a superior option to aluminum when it comes to lightweighting and curbing environmental impacts.

Tom Gibson, president and CEO of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Photo by Fouad Egbaria

Tom Gibson, president and CEO of AISI (and president of SMDI), touted the more than 60 steel-intensive vehicles debuted in the last year at auto shows in Detroit, Chicago, New York and Los Angeles.

“Steel continues to play an integral role in new vehicle debuts,” Gibson said. “In the last month, we’ve seen the 2019 Chevrolet Silverado, Ford Ranger, all-new Ram 1500, Toyota Avalon, Honda Accord and Kia Forte, all touting the benefits of advanced, high-strength steels.

“With the mix of materials available to designers and engineers today, no other material provides the complete package steel provides with performance, value and innovation, as well as being the most environmentally sound material for automakers and consumers.”

Jody Hall, vice president, automotive market, of SMDI, presented the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study findings, comparing steel with aluminum. The LCA study tested five different vehicles and went through a 10-month review, Hall said, and was validated by a “panel of experts” from Harvard University, Argonne National Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and consultancy firm thinkstep.

“The bottom line is, the result of this expert-validated study shows for the vehicles studied, lightweighting with advanced, high-strength steel produces lower greenhouse gas emissions than lightweighting with aluminum,” Hall said. “The difference comes, primarily, from the material production phase emissions of advanced high-strength steel and aluminum. These are emissions not captured when focusing only on tailpipe emissions under current EPA regulations.”

Hall further emphasized the case for steel, saying that if one lightweighted the five vehicles in the study with aluminum instead of steel, “the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions increase is estimated at 12 million tons of CO2 emissions. That’s the equivalent of the amount of electricity used to power 1.6 million homes.”

More details on the study, titled “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Study of Automotive Lightweighting,” and its methodology can be found at

AK Steel CEO Roger Newport. Photo by Fouad Egbaria

During the presentation, AK Steel CEO Roger Newport also delivered some comments on the state of the steel industry vis-a-vis the automotive world. Newport said steel has evolved to meet changing consumer demands in recent decades, and noted there’s been a “remarkable change” in the importance of materials when it comes to automotive construction.

“Materials are front and center,” he said.

It remains to be seen how much market share aluminum can capture. In the meantime, the steel industry will no doubt continue to tout its virtues compared with aluminum.

“The SMDI along with AK Steel are very excited about the potential of new, innovative steel products,” Newport said. “We continue our efforts to support the changes in the automotive world.”

Odds and Ends from Day 1 at the Auto Show

A few other miscellaneous notes from the first day of the Chicago Auto Show on Thursday, Feb. 8:

Subaru Presents 50th Anniversary Lineup

Subaru presented its 50th anniversary lineup, composed of nine vehicles, during

Subaru’s 50th anniversary lineup of vehicles. Photo by Fouad Egbaria

an unveiling ceremony. Tom Doll, president and chief operating officer of Subaru of America, Inc., touted the automaker’s growth since 2008, a period during which its market share rose from 1.4% to 3.8%, he said, and has seen it become the seventh-best selling brand in the industry.

“We’re not that small, fledgling little car company anymore,” Doll said.

Production quantities will be limited to 1,050 for Crosstrek, Forester, Impreza, Legacy and Outback, while WRX, STI and BRZ will have a combined total of 1,050, according to a Subaru release.

Kia Stinger Wins MotorWeek’s Best of the Year Award

Thursday afternoon at the Grand Concourse media stage, MotorWeek presented its Best of the Year award, which this year went to the Kia Stinger.

MotorWeek’s John Davis (left) presents Michael Sprague, chief operating officer of Kia Motors America, with the publication’s Best of the Year award for the Kia Stinger. Photo by Fouad Egbaria

MotorWeek host and creator John Davis said they try to pick a vehicle each year that captures “that moment in the automotive landscape,” in addition to, simply, being fun to drive.

“Our Best of the Year for 2018 really is the perfect definition of our award,” Davis said. “It’s a lot of fun to drive but moreover it is the result of a brand setting and achieving a new bar of prowess that is on par with the world’s best.”

The vehicle has a 3.3-liter twin turbo V6, an 8-speed automatic transmission and available performance-oriented all-wheel-drive system.

Michael Sprague, chief operating officer of Kia Motors America, accepted the award from Davis.

“It was introduced back in 2011 at the Frankfort Auto Show as a concept vehicle,” Sprague said. “Many people here in the audience told us ‘you have to build this car.'”

Klairmont Kollections Brings Retro Vibe

You won’t see too many cars like these on the streets today, but Klairmont Kollections took drivers down memory lane during its first ride as an exhibitor at the Chicago Auto Show.

Photo by Fouad Egbaria

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The collection of unique vehicles, some dating back to the early 1900s, is based in Chicago and owned by World War II veteran and Highland Park, Illinois resident Larry Klairmont.

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This morning in metals news, aluminum industry officials testified to the U.S. International Trade Commission regarding the ongoing aluminum foil investigation, Mexico’s economy minister says automotive rules of origin will change as part of the ongoing renegotiation talks surrounding the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and copper is on track for its biggest weekly drop in two months.

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Aluminum Industry Testifies to ITC

Representatives of the aluminum industry in the U.S. testified before the ITC earlier today as part of the final phase of an investigation of aluminum foil imports.

“The relief we seek will help ensure that the U.S. aluminum foil industry can compete fairly in the U.S. market,” Aluminum Association CEO and President Heidi Brock said in her testimony. “The Aluminum Association is committed to combating unfair trade practices that impact our industry while we strive for a level playing field. The U.S. government must enforce its trade rules so that companies can continue to innovate, invest and grow with confidence in the United States.”

Brock’s full testimony can be read here.

Rules of the Road

Renegotiation talks surrounding NAFTA, the 24-year-old trilateral trade deal, have been contentious at times. The U.S. negotiating team has sought to win concessions from Canada and Mexico, among them including tighter automotive rules of origin.

On Thursday, Mexico’s Economy Minister Ildefonso Guajardo said the rules of origin will change, Reuters reported.

Copper Continues Down Week

In good news for copper buyers, the price of the metal has dipped significantly this week amid significant market volatility.

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According to Reuters, copper is on track to post its biggest weekly loss since early December. London copper dipped below the $7,000 mark yesterday, closing at $6,837 per ton.

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This morning in metals news, the chief executive of Austria’s Voestalpine says Europe’s steel industry has excess capacity, copper picked up as the dollar’s gains paused and automotive aluminum use is picking up according to one survey.

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Voestalpine Chief Executive Says Europe Must Address Steel Overcapacity

According to the chief executive of Voestalpine, Europe should prepare for potential factory closures on account of a steel surplus of about 20%, the Financial Times reported.

According to Wolfgang Eder, Europe will be vulnerable to cheap imports. He said the European steel sector should shift its focus from commodity metal to higher-value products, according to the report.

Copper Price Rises

Copper rose as the dollar steadied on the heels of previous gains, Reuters reported.

LME copper hits $7,094.50 per ton at midday, according to the report.

Aluminum Autos

The aluminum sector is becoming more influential in the automotive industry, according to one survey.

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According to a report in Automotive News, a Ducker Worldwide survey said aluminum is “the fastest growing automotive material over competing materials and is entering its most unprecedented growth phase since we’ve been tracking the shifting mix of automotive materials.”

The Automotive MMI got off to a hot start in 2018, picking up three points en route to a February reading of 100. The February reading marked the first triple-digit performance for the MMI since it posted a 101 in January 2014. 

As for the basket of metals, a majority of the bunch posted price increases this past month.

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U.S. HDG steel jumped 2.7% as of Feb. 1, while U.S. platinum bars rose 6.2%. Fellow platinum-group metal (PGM) palladium fell for the month, however, by 5.8%.

U.S. shredded scrap jumped 7.7% and Korean aluminum 5052 coil rose 6.7%.

U.S. Auto Sales

January proved to a be a mixed bag for automakers vis-a-vis their U.S. sales.

According to data from Autodata Corp released Feb. 1, topping the charts in January was General Motors Corp., with 198,386 units sold, up 13% year over year. Sales of light trucks carried the day, as they increased 12.6% to soften a 30.2% drop in car sales. (General Motors is expected to announce its fourth-quarter 2017 and full-year earnings Tuesday, Feb. 6.)

In mid-January, GM forecasted 2018 would be another good year. According to a GM release, the company benefited from “continued strength” in North America and China, plus improvement in South America.

“GM had a very good 2017 as we continued to transform our company to be more focused, resilient and profitable,” GM Chairman and CEO Mary Barra said in the release. “We are positioned for another strong year in 2018 and an even better one in 2019.”

GM touted its growth in truck sales in a release last Thursday.

“All of our brands are building momentum in the industry’s hottest and most profitable segments,” said Kurt McNeil, U.S. vice president, sales operations, in the prepared statement. “Chevrolet led the growth of the small crossover segment with the Trax as well as the mid-pickup segment with the Colorado. Now, we have the all-new Equinox and Traverse delivering higher sales, share and transaction prices.”

Meanwhile, Ford Motor Company, which called 2017 a “challenging” year during its earnings call last week, didn’t have quite as good of a month. Ford posted a 6.3% year-over-year sales drop, with 160,411 units sold in January.

Down the list, Fiat Chrysler had a rough month, posting a 12.8% year-over-year decline. Toyota sales jumped 16.8%, Honda‘s were down 1.7% and Nissan‘s jumped 10.0%.

Volkswagen, meanwhile, found itself adding to the bad press from its Dieselgate scandal when it was reported last month that the company conducted exhaust tests on monkeys. Volkswagen’s January U.S. sales were down a whopping 32.8% year over year.

China and EVs

Everybody knows about Tesla and Elon Musk — but what about China and its role in what will assuredly become an increasingly electrified automotive world?

According to Bloomberg, one small town in southeast China will house a planned $1.3 billion battery factory that could stymie the global competition.

“The company plans to raise 13.1 billion yuan ($2 billion) as soon as this year by selling a 10 percent stake, at a valuation of about $20 billion,” the Bloomberg report states. “The share sale would finance construction of a battery-cell plant second in size only to Tesla Inc.’s Gigafactory in Nevada—big enough to cement China as the leader in the technology replacing gas-guzzling engines.”

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We have written before about the GFG Alliance and, in particular, within that Executive Chairman Sanjeev Gupta’s Liberty Group that has bought distressed steel and aluminum assets in the U.K. over the last 10 years. Last month, Gupta’s Liberty Group announced plans to add Europe’s largest aluminum smelter in Dunkerque, France, to its portfolio.

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Liberty already owns the Liberty British Aluminium smelter at Fort William in Scotland (formerly owned by Rio Tinto). But in what may prove to be another timely move, Liberty has announced plans to build a 2 million a year alloy wheelmaking production facility alongside the Fort Williams smelter, scheduled to begin production by 2020. We say “timely” because the U.K. is expected to exit the E.U. by March 30, 2019; although transition periods have been discussed, it is not clear what the tariff framework will be during any extension beyond that March date.

Source: The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT)

The U.K. automotive industry is one of few success stories, exporting some 80% of its 1.67 million cars last year and nearly 55% of its 2.7 million engines. As the above graph from SMMT shows, output is down a little from last year due to a double whammy of uncertainty around the economy’s future due to Brexit and a general move away from diesel engines following the emissions scandal (and what that may mean in terms of changes in government policy).

GFG’s move is timely because the U.K. imports much of its alloy wheels at the moment; the imposition of tariffs will mean domestic suppliers will have a distinct advantage.

In GFG’s case, this will be enhanced by the location. With the smelter right next door, Liberty Group intends to ship liquid metal from the smelter directly into the casting works, giving the economics a distinct advantage over plants elsewhere that buy in primary metal ingot and remelt it.

The top 10 makers of alloy wheels are either global brands like Enkei and Ronal, or national champions like Germany’s Borbet or America’s Arconic and Superior, or China’s Foshan Nanhai Zhongnan Aluminum Wheel Co. Although the U.K. produces 1.67 million cars, its supply chain is highly integrated with continental Europe, a supply arrangement that is clearly at risk post-Brexit with no vision of what a post-Brexit landscape would look like — or what kind of post-Brexit landscape the British government even wants.

According to U.K. government websites, alloy wheels for automotive application represent the fifth-most attractive opportunity for domestic supply after components like engine castings, steering systems and engine forgings. Alloy wheels are valued as a £210 million per annum supply opportunity. GFG’s plant is planned to produce some 2 million wheels, or a fifth of all U.K. demand.

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Regardless of the tariff environment after Brexit, the new plant appears to make a solid financial case. However, if as expected the British government manages to make a complete hash of a “free trade deal” — that is, they don’t get one — the plant’s credentials look even more compelling.

Coca Cola’s new lineup of Diet Coke flavors. Source: The Coca-Cola Company Image Library

Before we head into the weekend, let’s take a look back at the week that was and some of the headlines here on MetalMiner:

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